How to make Rcandy and (probably) not get hurt.

"You must learn from the mistakes of others.  You will never have time to make them all yourself."
Mark Twain

I would add that some mistakes can cost us the opportunity to make others.  Tacky little things like death, disability, imprisonment, any of which could result from poorly performed rocketry experiments.

Safety and freedom are opposites.  More of one is almost always less of the other.   The challenge is to find a dynamic balance:  Enough safety to keep us alive and whole, enough freedom to make life worth living.

In order to enjoy the freedom to do experimental rocketry, we must devote substantial effort to safety precautions.  Otherwise, the freedom will be taken from us.  This applies to individuals who perform irresponsible experiments and suffer disability or legal injunction, both limiting to subsequent freedom.  Or it can apply to experimentalists as a group with restrictive laws and policies imposed in response to unfortunate incidents.

We enter a strange and dangerous world, and must seek the guidance of those who have come before.

Here is the little bit that I know.

Basic Safety Precautions

  1. At present, I do NOT recommend making this propellant in a household kitchen.
  2. Make small batches only!  No more than one standard recipe, which yields about 160 grams of propellant
  3. Wear protective gear.  You should have a full-face shield, long sleeved heavy cotton shirt, heavy apron and heat-resistant gloves.  These must be worn at appropriate points in the process.
  4. Do not allow children or rambunctious pets in the room where you are working.
  5. Do not allow distracting, inattentive, inebriated or otherwise incompetent adults in the room, especially if they smoke.
  6. Be vigilant of possible sources of sparks, flame, or high temperature that could ignite propellant on contact.
  7. If you smoke, place your cigarettes and lighter in another room so you will not light up unconsciously.
  8. Clear your work-area of any flammable materials.
  9. Have a good fire extinguisher available.  Also a 5-gallon bucket of water nearby and a garden hose outside.
  10. Make sure there is good ventilation, and a quick escape route to fresh air.
  11. Avoid stupid rocket tricks.


1.  Not in kitchen.  I expect this will create a dilemma for many prospective rcandy makers since the process requires the use of an oven, and most ovens are found in kitchens.  I hope one day to demonstrate that this process is safe enough that small batches can be made in an average kitchen, but that will require extensive testing and documentation which I have not yet done.  So for now, I recommend adding an oven to your workshop or lab.

Accidents may not be more likely in a properly-prepared kitchen than a lab, but the consequences are likely to be much greater.  And then there is the issue of the "owner" of the kitchen, which isn't necessarily the person who makes the mortgage payments.

2.  Small batches.
This offers both a lower chance of accidental ignition (less surface area to catch a spark) and less flash and smoke if the batch does catch fire.  Making larger batches requires more extensive safety precautions than described here.

3.  Protective gear
At certain points in the process, you will be handling the propellant.  At these points, you must wear the face shield and other protective equipment.  If the fuel somehow catches fire, it can burn very quickly.  Any person who is nearby is likely to be burned by the flash.  Protective gear can mean the difference between a surprise and a tragedy.

4 and 5.  Screen your company
Most children and some pets are very distracting.  They can cause things to move about unexpectedly, and can be burned or otherwise injured in an accident.  If there are kinetic children in the vicinity, make sure a competent and diligent person is watching them in another room with the door closed.  If this situation cannot be arranged, it is a bad time to make rocket propellant.

Other adults may want to observe.  That may be OK, provided that they are observers/helpers and not distractors/spark sources.  Any adult present must know what is going on, know the risks involved, and know the procedures to follow if an accidental ignition occurs.  They must agree to avoid distracting you from the propellant-making process, and must leave their cigarettes outside the work area.

6 and 7.  Be vigilant about ignition sources.
I often envision a little elf who is a heavy smoker and jumps about at will, dropping sparks everywhere.  This is to maintain the mindset that assumes my propellant can ignite at any time, for no apparent reason.  I will take care to ensure that if there is an accidental ignition at any point in the process, no one will be hurt.  "I can't imagine how it could go off!" reflects a lack of imagination.  It can go off, and it doesn't need a reason.

All that said, recrystallized KN/sucrose seems to be one of the least likely candidates for spontaneous ignition, and that is one of the reasons I still make it.  But the "it-can-ignite-anytime-for-no-reason" mindset is a great safety feature, and I recommend you adopt it.

8.  Clear  your workspace
Flammable things nearby offer substantial opportunity for a major fire.  This rocket propellant burns fast - its flame will be gone in a few seconds.  It is not likely to ignite heavy wood or plastic objects, but if there are cup-towels, paper towels, newspaper, or other easily ignitable items nearby, the burning fuel may set fire to them.  If you do this in a workshop, make sure any volatile liquids are removed before beginning the process.  Don't forget the lawn-mower gasoline!

9.  Fire extinguishers
Having a fire extinguisher around is a good idea in general, and a really good idea if you are making rocket propellant.  I recommend at least a 5-pound dry chemical extinguisher.  This is not so much for putting out the burning propellant - most likely it will be all burned up before you can react.  The extinguisher would be used to put out the things the propellant sets on fire.

The bucket of water is good for dropping hot things into in an emergency, and can serve as a secondary extinguisher in a pinch.  If you are working on a batch of propellant and it ignites, is usually best to step back and wait for it to burn out, then engage in damage control.  If you happen to be holding the propellent when it ignites, drop it immediately and step back.  The bucket of water gives you a good place to drop it.

I also keep a garden hose outside the workshop door.

10.  Ventilation and escape route
This propellant produces a dense, lingering smoke.  A small batch burning in a closed area will create a cloud that obscures vision completely.  It is also irritating, and can be toxic at high concentrations.  So it is important to know your area well enough to be able to escape to open air without use of vision, to be able to ventilate the room and let the smoke out, and to be able to extinguish any secondary fires without exposing yourself to great personal risk.

11.  Avoid Stupid Tricks.  Unfortunately, the difference between a normal procedure and a stupid trick may not be obvious at first.  More unfortunately, this kind of experience may come at great cost.

I cannot describe all possible stupid tricks.  I will point out those of which I am aware, but it is up to you to think ahead about any procedure you are considering, and wonder:  What could go wrong?  What is the danger?  How can I protect myself, others, and property in case this thing goes wrong?

Here are a few "stupid trick" warnings for starters:

  1. Do not store any propellant or explosive in a glass container!  If there is an ignition, the flying shrapnel is likely to be more dangerous than the explosion itself.  This warning also applies to containers of strong metal or hard plastic.
  2. Do not heat rocket propellant in the microwave!  It will ignite immediately!
  3. Do not smoke while making or handling rocket propellant.
  4. Do not attempt to melt KN/sucrose over direct heat!  It is likely to  ignite, throwing hot, sticky, burning propellant out of the pot and onto whatever is nearby.
  5. Do not substitute chemicals, or add new substances without some study.  Keep any experimental batches very small.
Note that these only relate to the making and storing of this propellant.  There are many stupid tricks to be avoided in the use of propellants - but I won't get into that right now.

Safety Unconcerns:

Mixing dry KN/sucrose is relatively safe in and of itself. The mixture is slow-buring, not sensitive, and not known to auto-ignite.
But in a closed space, large amounts burning could present a danger through flame or smoke, or by setting other things afire.

The components of this propellant are inherently non-toxic.  Potassium Nitrate is used as a medicine, a meat preservative, and in desensitizing toothpaste.  Small amounts can be injested without harm.  Sugar is another matter.  Many nutritionists consider it poisonous, although I have known some people to consume substantial quantities and survive.  At least for a little while.

Danger Point 1:  Dissolving the solids

Risk level: low to moderate

The process involves mixing KN/sucrose/corn syrup with a little water and dissolving it over heat.

I believe this to be relatively safe, having experienced no unfortunate incidents in hundreds of batches, BUT!

Don't leave the pan unattended while heating! If all the water cooks out, it could ignite.
Don't heat it too vigorously!  If it boils over, liquid reaching the burner could dry out enough to ignite. It is not necessary to boil the mix, just heat it enough to dissolve the KN and sucrose.


  1. Do this outside, if at all possible. A camp stove or electric hotplate should work OK.
  2. Wear your protective gear while heating.
  3. Don't leave it cooking unattended.
  4. If you are unavoidably interrupted while heating this mix, just turn off the heat, set it off the stove and let it cool

Danger Point 2: Baking pans to dryness

As the pans bake, the mix becomes dryer. At some point it becomes capable of sustaining combustion.

Risk A:  If you are baking rcandy and another matter demands your attention, turn the oven off.  You can always resume baking later.  But if the mix is nearing dryness, you must be very protective.  Remove the pans from the oven, cover with plates and place in a safe spot.

Risk B:  There is some danger when taking samples from the pans to test for dryness.  Even more risky is tossing the sample back into the pan.  Once I missed the pan. The sample landed on the oven floor.  I shut the door, turned off the oven, backed away and grabbed the fire extinguisher.  The sample turned into a black blot but did not ignite.  Whew.


  1. Wear mask, gloves and apron when testing for dryness
  2. Take the pan out of the oven when removing the sample or putting it back.
  3. Or don't bother returning the sample at all - throw it in a flower-pot!
  4. Be very observant of possible ignition sources when handling dried pans.  (e.g. don't smoke!)
If ignition occurs:
  1. Release oven door, close it if you can do so safely
  2. Jump back quickly
  3. When propellant is finished burning, turn the oven off
  4. Open all windows and doors before the smoke engulfs everything
  5. Observe for secondary fires, extinguish as necessary.

Danger point 3:  Scraping it up

I believe that scraping dried KN/sucrose out of the pans is the most dangerous step in the process I am describing.

This is because:

  1. The propellant is now dry and thus ignitable
  2. It is hot, thus closer to its ignition point
  3. The operator is present, working on the propellant with short-handled tools
  4. The flakes of propellant propagate flame very quickly
  5. Burning flakes are self-propelled.  They fly in all directions, and seem especially fond of body orofices.
  6. All the problems of collateral fire, smoke, observers and neighbors still apply.
Happily, I can say that these warnings are based on speculation, not experience, having never (yet!) had an unexpected ignition while making propellant by this method.


  1. Do this outside, if at all possible.
  2. Wear all of your protective gear
  3. Check for potential ignition-sources
  4. Do not allow observers to stand too close, especially if they smoke!
Danger Point 4:  Re-heating

Rcandy can be re-heated and re-formed almost indefinately

Stupidity alert!  Don't re-heat in the microwave!  The propellant will ignite.  Toaster-oven is recommended.

Danger:  Contact with heating element.


  1. Know where your oven's heating elements are.
  2. Make sure that the largest chunk you heat will not brush against a heating element when it is inserted or removed.
  3. Maintain competence - avoid klutziness when handling propellant around hot things.
Danger Point 5:  Storage

Rcandy seems to be very stable and insensitive to shock or friction.  It must be sealed air-tight to protect from moisture - this seal should also protect it from flame or stray sparks.

Danger:  Rcandy can be ignited by external sources or spark, flame, or heat.  The resulting fire will be brief but intense, and will likely set other things on fire, such as its plastic container.


  1. Don't store large amounts of propellant.  Sugar and KNO3 are innocuous in and of themselves, so keep them separate until propellant is needed.
  2. Do not store propellant in your home.  Any amount more than a few grams should be kept in a shed away from the house, and away from high voltages and volatile liquids.
  3. Place the plastic containers of rcandy inside a metal box with a loose-fitting lid.

This is an incomplete list.  There are more dangers than I can imagine, much less describe.  I leave it to you to learn the nature of this propellant, its virtues, and its risks to your physical and social environments.

Respect will come from knowing it well.  Knowing it will come from making many small batches and experimenting with them cautiously.

Please be safe.

Jimmy Yawn